Land Ownership


The current settlement pattern, in rough approximation at least, probably goes back to the evolution of the village in about 8th century, coinciding with the advent of open field agriculture which lent itself to clustered settlement. Archaeological evidence suggests that earlier settlement of what is now the parish was more disparate and presumably therefore so was ownership, to the extent that the concept of ownership then reflected our modern understanding of the term. However organised or administered, since early times it would appear that some of the occupiers of land in the Wold Newton area have done rather well for themselves if the size of the burial mound which was in the north west of the parish is anything to go by: see the Urns page. The construction of a mound covering 4 acres and 6 feet high would have required significant control over land and people.

The first documented land ownership comes in the Domesday Book, which (if you follow the interpretation put forward by the PASE project (Prosopography of Anglo Saxon England)) is the record of a Commission of Enquiry set up by Willem the Conk to establish who owned what before the invasion, and who owned the same places in 1086, the point of which was to show the Norman barons how they had benefited from his victory and subsequent generosity to them. It is certainly a good record of the convulsion in land ownership caused by the arrival of the Normans and the displacement of the Saxons. On that basis it would seem that Ingimund had control of a good lot of land in Wold Newton (and also surrounding parishes, eg Beesby, Hawerby, Swinhope etc) up to 1066, and was amongst the displaced as the Normans took over.

(table courtesy of the PASE website.)

It appears that the parish was divided between Alan Rufus, Count of Brittany (a possible companion of the Conk at Hastings, who subsequently amassed a huge landholding across England, resulting in him becoming the third wealthiest noble in terms of annual income in 1086) and the Bishop of Durham, starting a link with the parish that lasted until late in the nineteenth century, as the patronage of the living in the parish was held by the Bishop and exercised, with the odd exception, until it was transferred to the Bishop of Lichfield. The Church also has kept land in the parish through to the present day. It would be interesting to know if the originally separate tenancies as given in Domesday were maintained as separate holdings. It seems to show a pattern of small holdings that continued for the next 700 years or so. There seem to be several holdings/messuages in Wold Newton that were only united when Charles Pelham and the Brocklesby Estate finally won the game of Monopoly and united the Wold Newton parish and land into one holding apart from the church land.

A further glimpse comes from the transcription by REC Waters/Walter of the Roll of Landowners in Lindsey in the reign of Henry I, which describes the succession from Alan to Stephen, still Count of Brittany, and the further possession of the Bishop of Durham and his vassal Walbert. It also gives further potential clues to the Bek/Willoughby problem described below, in that the Bishop of Durham's steward, Pinco Dapifer, may have been the link into the Bek and subsequently Willoughby family.

The following are the introduction and relevant extracts from the Roll for the wapentake of Haverstoe. The author’s notes are in square brackets; DOM = Domesday; car. = carucate; bov. = bovates. At the end of each entry is the corresponding landowner in Domesday.

HAVERSTOE WAPENTAKE contains 7½ hundreds, and each one of them are 12 cars. [The chief proprietor was the Count of Brittany, who was the owner of more than half the wapentake.]

[Stephen] Count of Brittany has 6 cars. in Waltham, and 6 cars. in Barnoldby-le-Beck, and 4 cars. 4 bovs. in Beesby, and 4 cars. in Hatcliffe, and 2 cars. in Grainsby, and 3 cars. in Ravendale, and 1 car. 4 bovs. in Brigsley, and 6 bovs. in Ashby, and 1 car. 3 bovs. in Waith, and 1 car. 1 bov. in North Thoresby, and 3 cars. in Fenby, and 3 cars. in Beesby, and 3 cars. in Cadeby, where Walter is the tenant, and 2 cars. 2 bovs. in Hawerby, and 3 cars. 4 bovs. in Wold Newton, and 6 cars. 2 bovs. in the Count’s demesne, and 2 cars. 2½ bovs. in Swinhope, of which Anfrid de Canci is tenant [and which was held in Dower in 1186 by the widow of Anfrid’s son, Simon de Canci]. [Count Alan of Brittany in DOM.]

WALBERT has under the Bishop of Durham 4 bovs. in Newton-le-Wold [where he was the Bishop’s tenant in DOM.], and in Audby 1 bov., of which Roger de Laci is tenant. [Bishop Odo in DOM.]

RANULF, BISHOP OF DURHAM, has 2 cars. 7 bovs. [in Fulstow and Newton] Pinco Dapifer is tenant [Pinco’s grand-daughter and heiress carried this estate to her husband, Walter Beke, the ancestor of the Bekes of Eresby.]

From the introduction, it seems Stephen, Count of Brittany, is brother and successor to the Alan in Domesday. Walbert seems to be a new landowner since Domesday and to have somehow acquired his 4 bovs. from the Bishop of Durham. This extract from the introduction helps to fill in some gaps.

Pinco Dapifer, the Steward of the Bishop of Durham held under the See in 1114-16 17½ carucates, including Eresby, all of which had been granted to him since Domesday, and as it may be assumed since Bishop Ranulf’s return from exile in 1107. His son Hugh fitz Pinco, held these same estates in 1166, under the See of Durham, as seven knights’ fees, which his daughter Agnes carried to her husband Walter Beke, the ancestor of the Lords Beke of Eresby. The Roll therefore enables us to correct the fabulous genealogy recorded by the Monks of Alvingham, which misled Dugdale into stating, that Walter Beke was contemporary with William the Conqueror, and held the Manor of Eresby by the gift of the sovereign.

Early Middle Ages

Some of the earliest records of land transactions , provided in Lincoln Record Society publications, are found from the 13th Century when Eudo, son of Ralph of Grainsby, gives lands in Newton to the (Gilbertine) priory at Alvingham. Dugdale's Monasticon records the Alvingham priory having a 'grange' at Wold Newton, perhaps a link to the current South farm that may have been called Grange Farm in the 18th century. Another transaction is recorded in that Odo and Ismania give the lands that Eudo son of Ralph of Neweton held, consisting of one messuage and 58 acres to Robert de Cateby, for 50s sterling. Is this Cateby in fact the modern Cadeby, and is Robert an earlier version of the Morrison family of Cadeby who apparently held land in Wold Newton, Beesby and Autby, (see later, Losely papers.) Also, a fraction of land was held by Louth Abbey between 1303 and 1346 or longer.

A Will recorded from 1531 shows William Wright, (not believed to be related to the Wrights later appearing in the Victorian period) leaving his croft and lands in Wold Newton called Chubsgarth to his son Walter.

Bek/Willougby/Middleton estate

Deeds deposited in the University of Nottingham special archives from the estates office of the Willoughby family, who took the title of Lord Middleton, show land holdings from the 14th century through until 1766, when their final holding of two cottages (as marked on the Brocklesby Estate map of 1767 “late Willoughby Cottages”) was sold to Charles Pelham. Is it possible that these Willoughby's are in fact the Welby or Welleby recorded by ACE Welby in his note in Lincolnshire Notes and Queries as receiving entitlements in Wold Newton from Beatrice, wife of Alan of Normanby in 1303? Also, in 1212 and 1214, Henry son of Walter Bek holds two and a half carucates of land in Newton, Fulstow and Ravendale by service of one knight, and his brother Walter Bek of Lusby has 12 bovates of land secured to him by a fine. Later, in 1372, John de Willoughby dies owning a manor in Wold Newton, presumably received from his father Robert who had received it as shown above in 1303 from Beatrice. John leaves it to his son Robert, and either he or another descendant Robert is recorded as holding it in 1428.

The Nottingham documents are yet to be examined, and may not easily yield information. (It is astonishing how any land records were maintained, when some of the documents were so flimsy, the writing scarcely legible, amongst a populace largely illiterate.) The Willoughby documents come from the Middleton archive deposited with the University of Nottingham when the Lords Middleton moved from their then family seat at Wollaton Hall, outside Nottingham, to their current seat at Birdsall near Malton in Yorkshire. Various histories (such as that on the Nottinghamshire History website, recount the history of the Willoughby family, not least giving a pedigree showing their descent from a Ralph Bugge of Willoughby on the Wolds in Leics, and intermarriages with the Foljambe family of Notts/Derbyshire, and the Willoughby D/'Eresby family of Grimsthorpe in Lincs. The account there also records the many different spellings of the Willoughby name. Would they also be related to the Hugh and Philip given in the list of priests of Wold Newton at the end of the thirteenth century? But one of those then moved on to Willoughby in the Marsh, in Lincs, nearer the seat of the Grimsthorpe/Spilsby Willoughbys, one of whose ancestors is Anthony Bek, the very influential Bishop of Durham (1283 – 1311) and aide of Edward I and Edward II. The Bek family held land at Eresby near Spilsby. Other relatives were Bishops of Lincoln and Norwich. In fact the records of the Bishop of Lincoln Oliver Sutton as produced by the Lincoln Record Society, vol 29, show the Bishop authorising the move of Hugh to Willoughby le Marsh and then Hugh being instituted to Wold Newton by the aforesaid Anthony Bek, Bishop of Durham. Are these related to the Beks recorded earlier as possessing land in Wold Newton?


An item, yet to be examined, in the Nottinghamshire County Archives, on deposit from the Foljambe family archives from Osberton, is a document relating to Wold Newton dated to 1384-5. The earliest Willoughby documents in the University archives are dated 1395. The Foljambe family owned land across the North East Midlands; one of their bigger holdings in Lincs was in South Kelsey for some time.

Tudor, Stuart and Georgian Periods

St Paul/Poll/Tyrwhitt/Welfitt

A potentially fresh strand of ownership in the village appears in the Will of Sir George St Poll (aka St Paul) of Melwood in Nottinghamshire, who owned extensive lands across Notts and Lincs, yet chose to be buried in Snarford church, where the tombs of he and his wife dominate the church still. His will, dated 1612, leaves his lands all across north Lincs and Notts to his wife, including land at Wold Newton. A provision in the Will allows for the onward transmission of some of the lands, given as a manor at Swallow and lands at Aylesby and Laceby to his nephew Philip Tyrwhitt on his wife's death. Philip Tyrwhitt, either the same or his son, then next appears in one of the early Yarborough title deeds on deposit at the Lincoln Archives, where William Welfitt secures a mortgage on a piece of land called Willoughby Farm in Wold Newton. (So possibly this land also derives from the Willoughby ownership. ) The land is given as being formerly in the possession of Sir Philip Tyrwhitt, now of Stainfield. He apparently sold it in 1643 to John Petley, a lawyer of St Giles in Middlesex, but quite probably the son of one of the Rectors of Wold Newton, Elias Petley. He may in turn have sold it on to one Richard Watts, another lawyer from Middlesex, and his wife, daughter and son -in law Charles Murray, Earl of Dunmore, then passed it on to William Welfitt senior in 1682, one of the 23 title documents in the Yarborough deed paper deposits in the Lincolnshire County Archives. Unfortunately the archivists in charge are not currently allowing access to the papers, saying they are too fragile.


They mostly record how the William Welfitts father and son struggled to keep hold of the lands acquired by the senior. The story probably starts with Timothy Welfitt, who first came across from the Hull/East Yorks area to be incumbent at Grimoldby and Rand with Fulnetby, before becoming Rector of South Kelsey in 1668, and ended up at Lincoln Cathedral as Prebendary, on the way marrying Suzanne Caldwell, the daughter of the master of Thorganby, William Caldwell, whose father Lawrence was a hero of the Civil War. Caldwell must have had an interest in one of the farms in Wold Newton as one of the title deeds in the Yarborough deposit relates to his passing it on to Timothy Welfitt in 1654, who presumably passes it on to his son, William, born at Caistor in 1643. He goes on to become a Bachelor of Laws in London, before taking Holy Orders and acquiring the livings of Beelsby and Swinhope. Exactly what land is passed on is not yet clear, but if he is acquiring Willoughby Farm in 1682, by 1696 he is borrowing from his brother Samuel, also a priest (they were ordained on the same day in 1671 in Lincoln Cathedral. Must have made their father proud, tho' it's interesting that in a 1687 Wold Newton lease William is described as the only son and heire of Timothy) with the living at Faldingworth, and who married the daughter of Cressy of Ravendale and Brigsley (the Larken pedigree is wrong on this?), and mortgaging his interest in four farms, Willoughby aforesaid, Clickem farm, Grange Farm, and Home Farm, that being in the occupation at the time of the said William, as well as four further smallholdings in the village. Church records show that while he held the livings outside the village, he continued to live at his house in Wold Newton, presumably the Manor House, now known as Welfitts. William senior died in 1715, his will describing himself as 'the squire' of Wold Newton. His will gives the various rents payable to him from his tenants, and apportions them to his wife, and the Harneis family of Hawerby, into whom his sister had married. The rest he leaves to his son, William junior. However, the estate, such as it is, is presumably still subject to mortgage, as William junior is soon setting up new mortgages, with the same Harneis family in 1722, then with David Field from Swinhope in 1724, by which time two others are parties with him in the mortgage, John Fish of Great Coates and Shadworth Hodgson of Tothill near Alford. It is probable that these two are the executors of Samuel Welfitt, who had also died in 1720. William junior by this stage was living in Laceby, tho' his children if they predecease him are recorded buried in Wold Newton, and he himself is buried there in 1752. He managed to keep up the interest payments on his mortgages, but obviously was never able to repay the capital sums. The arrangement came to grief around 1740, when Welfitt had mortgaged the estate to Gervase Scrope, a lawyer in Lincoln, who came from a North Cockerington family. Scrope assigned part of the mortgage as a wedding dowry on his daughter's marriage to the Earl of Doloraine, (the title being awarded to an illegitimate line fathered by King Charles II). The Earl died shortly afterwards, and his executors, to wind up his estate, called in the mortgage. Welfitt then borrowed the cash for that from Charles Pelham of Brocklesby. Shortly afterwards, he was unable to maintain the payments required on that loan, and in 1743 Pelham called in the loan and bought out the remaining interest of the Welfitt family in Wold Newton and Hawerby. Welfitt junior had married Catherine Tyrwhitt of Cameringham, another branch of the family that had owned part of the village in the previous century. His son, also William, is by now described as a Merchant, living back in Hull. (Welfitt himself is described as Gentleman, Pelham as Esquire.)


However, it seems that this is not all the estate or parish, as we currently know it. A note in Lincolnshire Notes and Queries by Canon Maddison discusses the sale of a manor in Wold Newton / Beesby / Hawerby / Autby by the estate of Lord Haversham, advertised in the London Gazette in 1747, 1749 and 1750, presumably following the death of the said Lord without successor (see Wikipedia), and Maddison notes that Pelham acquired it in 1752, but did not actually gain possession of it until 1785 as it had been let out on favourable terms to an Edmund White, although whether this is actually the manor of Wold Newton or Autby only is not yet clear. The report of the Chancery Hearing in 1747 from the London Gazette (31st March 1747) is attached below along with sale announcements from June 1749 and February 1750 and an extract from a letter on the subject. Haversham had come into possession of the manor by his marriage to the niece of Christopher Smith of Autby, who had settled the manor on her. Smith is presumably the same as that mentioned in an early Welfitt lease as being the former holder of Willoughby Farm. He also appears on another title document in the Yarborough deposit, being the record of a transfer within the holding in Wold Newton of the Morrison family of Cadeby. This may be the same holding. Whether this is the actual Manor, or what is currently known as the lordship of the manor, is not yet clear. Certainly none of the other Welfitt deeds and leases refer to the manor specifically.

Losely Papers – Morrison/Smith

Records held in the Surrey History Centre (as detailed on the Access to Archives service provided by National Archives) which come from the papers of the More/Molyneux family of Losely Park do refer to the Manor of Wold Newton, containing evidence of a dispute involving the Morrison family, Christopher Smith and Judith Gresham/Morley over ownership of the manors of Wold Newton, Beesby, Autby and lands in Tetney and Cleethorpes. It's not clear how this was resolved, and maybe it relates to the article above. There are some records from the Losely papers in the Lincolnshire County Archives yet to be examined.

Pelham also acquires the final holding of the Willoughby family in Wold Newton, in 1766 buying their last pair of cottages for £800, which the 1772 map shows as approximately in the position of the old Post Office cottages now.


By this stage, he has completed the Monopoly game, and now owns all the land in the parish apart from the church or glebe land. (There are two good accounts of this land, one from 1615, and the next in 1824, which references the first. Both give a good picture of the probable organisation of land holdings in the parish pre-Enclosure.) The second big upheaval in land ownership happens when Pelham completes his purchase, as the land holdings in the village are completely reorganised, and the four main farms are reorganised into two, North and South farm (where previously there was East Field and West Field), and the only smallholdings are small gardens/allotments which some farm-workers rent, the largest being that of the Smith families near the current Woodman's/Church Path cottage, where they had a blacksmith's premises. It was probably helpful for Pelham that his tenant who came into the North farm after he acquired the Welfitts' interest was William Gilliatt, who was a Commissioner for Enclosure. His gravestone in the churchyard records him as Grasier, and he died in 1777. He presumably passed on to his son, as the North Farm tenant in 1790 is also recorded as William Gilliatt.

Victorian Period


The Brocklesby Estate managed the Wold Newton estate pretty efficiently, investing in the more modern brick houses which survive today, similar in pattern to many across North Lincolnshire, and setting up the two main farms that remain, at North and South Farm, though the Click-em farm-yard did survive as a crew yard and place of work for North Farm employees until the middle of the twentieth century, the last buildings being pulled down only in the 1970's. Brocklesby Estate account books in the County Archives show the amount they invested in the infrastructure of the farms they rented out. They also negotiated with the Church to organise the Glebe land into one block where it remains, to the South of the Church and around the old Rectory.

Wold Newton, along with other estates, was mortgaged out at various times during this period, and finally it was sold off during the contraction of the Brocklesby Estate in the 1870's, concurrent with the agricultural depression that occurred as ships started bringing in frozen meat and corn from North America. At the auction in Louth in 1870, the tenant on South Farm, William ('Billy') Wright, the third-generation Wright to farm at South Farm, bought the whole estate, the tenant on North Farm, Francis Iles, saying he hadn't the money to pay the rent, let alone buy his farm. This is the first time that the Wold Newton parish is functioning as a single entity estate, apart from the glebe land.

The Wrights were a large land-owning family in North Lincolnshire in the 19th century, whose property included land in Owmby, Searby, Somerby, the Kelseys and to the north of Lincoln. When William Wright bought Wold Newton in 1871, he sold land at Owmby to pay for it.

Billy died just a few years later, killed in fall from a horse. His eldest son, William Maurice Wright, was still a minor at the time, and the estate was managed by the trustees of his father's Will, initially Wilfred Hyde Bell, his solicitor in Louth whose firm has continued in Louth, now trading as part of Wilkin Chapman, ( and his friends Mr Casswell from North Ormsby and Mr Nainby-Manby from Barnoldby le Beck, whose family subsequently moved to Thorganby. (When Billy died, the valuation for probate of his will was carried out by Mr Mason of Louth, who founded the firm still trading in Louth and carrying his name – ).

The trustees continued in management until 1894, when William Maurice turned 21, and according to the pompous subscription organised on the occasion by the then Rector, Charles Bird Jackson, 'assumed the lofty station to which he had been born', (ie that of Squire of Wold Newton). This title stuck to William Maurice, who was known as Squire Wright thereafter. It's fair to say that, although he was maybe not dealt a very good hand on acceding to the Estate, he did not play it that well, and followed the previously self-acclaimed Squire (Welfitt senior) in passing on his inheritance in less good shape than when he received it, maintaining his position through loans and investing little in the properties. Part of his problem lay in the wills of Billy and Billy's sister Mary, (who lived at Scallows Hall although they called it Binbrook Hall). The Wrights at that time had been large landowners across North Lincolnshire, and Billy sold some land he owned at Owmby near Searby to pay for his purchase of Wold Newton. Mary had mortgages on various properties around Louth. Both she and her brother left all their cash and properties to Squire's siblings (his four sisters and two brothers), believing that Squire would have enough from owning the farms, although the income from the North Farm was entailed to his mother until her death in 1928. So Squire only had the income from the rented-out South Farm. He did briefly feel that he ought to be doing some other work, and dabbled for a while with going into the Church, but nothing else suited him as he soon became a JP and Commissioner of Taxes, and settled to live the life of a country gentleman on little means, the running of the estate being helped by loans from his siblings on which he paid quarterly interest. He was probably the least suited of the boys (and maybe the girls also) to running the estate, being regularly rolled over by his farming tenants as much tougher negotiators. (His next brother, Teddy, built up a good business in agricultural contracting in Alton in Hampshire, which was only officially wound up in 1990.) Squire had one brief go at running the farms himself in the 1930's, but it was not an easy time in farming anyway, and within a couple of years had to bring in John ('Jack') Dale as tenant on both farms, with no rent to pay for the first eighteen months while he got the farms into productive order again. Squire later said that he was losing money so fast when farming that another six months would have seen him bankrupt.

When he died, in 1956, most of his siblings were unmarried, the effect of an over-dominant widowed mother, and of the two who did marry, all their offspring died young. He left his estate to his godson, Christopher Ollard, with the wish in his will that the estate be kept intact. He left no money to pay death duties however, and the continual pressure through the taxation system on land-holdings has seen the gradual breaking up of the estate to return it to the perhaps more traditional pattern of different ownerships thereafter.

Glebe Land

Inside the cover of one of the parish record books, now deposited at the Lincoln Archive, is a fascinating inventory of the lands which went with the parsonage in the reign of King James I, compiled by the then rector, Thomas Pilkington (presumably a member of the Pilkington land owning family), and apparently verified by somebody else, whose name is unclear. It is scarcely legible, but for what it is worth a copy can be accessed below together with our best attempt at a transcript. (If you can offer any insights which might improve our translation, please click on the Contact tab.) It paints a picture of land tenure scattered amongst the furlongs of the open fields, in a manner typical of the open field system pre-enclosure. Interestingly, some of the furlong names coincide with field names which exist today.

That pattern was still in place as late as 1834 when the then rector, Henry Mitton, prepared a terrier for the bishop's visitation, a transcript of which can be found below. It reflects, and indeed references, the inventory from more than 200 years earlier.

Lincoln Archive has a bundle of 11 other 'terriers', i.e. accounts of glebe land in the parish, and other parsonage assets such as tithes, buildings and other incomes presented at Bishop's visitations spanning the intervening period. Eight of them are mostly by Timothy Carrington, the parish priest from 1663 to 1708, and are co-signed by various churchwardens, one is undated and unsigned, one is undated by James Baad (parish priest 1721-44), and the final one is Rev Henry Powell's from 1824.

They follow mostly the layout established by Pilkington in 1613. All start with the churchyard at half an acre, and then mostly go on to the land adjoining the parsonage to the east, another half acre.

The 1668 terrier mentions the neighbouring owners as Goodhand and Harneiss, as Pilkington does, but is the only one to do so. The unsigned and dated terrier gives the neighbours as Thomas MOARFE (best guess) to the south and Edward ARODDANT (likewise a best guess) to the north, names that have not appeared anywhere else. No other terrier mentions neighbours.

The parsonage, when described, is given as 'two bays', though in 1668 and 1703, it is given as three bays. The barn is always four bays, and the stable or outhouse two bays.

The arable land always starts with East Field. Mostly it accounts for the 'lands' in the areas, and one land mostly equals half an acre, with one or two exceptions:

seven lands in (a furlong called) High Furrs/High Field/Furze Hill/ being 4 Acres;

one land in (a furlong called) Bowdale/Brodale conteyning one stong and a half (1671) / half an acre (1688);

one land in (a furlong called) Windings (1668) though later Beesby Stile (1697 et seq) half an acre.

1703 then has one land in Mill Gate, and one land in Horby field, both at half an acre. 1697 just has three lands in Horby field conteyning an acre and a half, whereas 1671 and 1668 have three lands in Wood-dale, containing an acre and a half.

One land in Sandhole conteyning half an acre is consistent, as is one land in the Brintle, though it is variously the Upper, the Middle, or just the plain Brintle. (The old Squire, William Wright, once noted in his diary that he walked 'through the Brintle' up to Double Hedge and on to Swinhope Walk. Double Hedge is the north side of Church Wood, but the Brintle is definitely in East Field.)

The Heanings and Stranmore/Langmore mostly have 2 lands being one acre, though 1703 and 1697 calls it Bramehills, which otherwise mostly occurs in West field. (1697 alone has one land in ‘Bramehills neer Langmore’ and one land in ye Heanings, all in East Field. The section in West Field where in other terriers Bramehills would occur is illegible.)

Grange Garth Stone (sounds like the present day Hundred Acre, very stony) has one land containing either 3 stong or half an acre.

The arable land in West Field likewise varies.

1668 and 1671 starts with the Town furlong, 2 lands containing one acre but that disappears later.

Likewise with Caster gate and its two lands containing one acre, though in 1697 it reappears later down the list as Cowland (a best guess) ‘neer Castergate’.

Slatercliffe is consistently one land at half an acre. Greencliffe also with 4 lands at two acres; in 1703 it is designated as 'neer Thorganby Walk' which puts it in today’s Middle Pasture. Heavy land (which it is) is sometimes called 'green'.

One land in Swinhopedale/Swinhope Bottom contains half an acre, but one land in Summerhills or Shepherd hills contains one acre, Shepherd Hills being linked occasionally with Scotgate in earlier terriers only.

The Bratts or Bratts Corner has one land at half an acre, as does Bulbank west of Binbrook gate in later terriers. Again, earlier copies mention the land in Barff at half an acre, whereas in 1703 there is a land in Urchin furlong, and one land in 'þy close corner'.

Earlier terriers, eg 1671, have a land in 'Far Hanna dale on ye west side called Bramehills' and one land 'under Mickle wong (hedge)'; 1697 alone has two lands south of the churchyard being one acre.

In 1693, 1703 and 1706 Carrington gives an account of tithes and other incomes. In 1697 he calls it 'the custom of the parish'. In 1706 it is most easy to understand.

“Tythe in kind of all corn, hay, wool and lamb. All sorts of petty tythes, Easter book, and low tithes. Forty sheep gates and four beast gates belong to ye Rectory and at Lamas teddering in ye corn field for a full Draught. Tythes for outness beast 6d ye beast, for outness sheep 2d ye sheep, full tythe for all sheep twixt Candlemas and clipping, for every sheep sold 2d to ye Rector, for every cow 2d. The lambs are tytheable on St Mark's day in lieu of a penny to ye parishioner”.

The other two mention tythes of bees, honey and wax, hemp flax furrs willows and eggs, chicken geese etc, the keeping of a horse “but no draught till Lamas then a sufficient draught to inn ye Corn”. The Easter book refers to every communicant paying 2d at Easter, as well as mortuaries.

Churchwardens include Sam Portus and Micheal Sheriff in 1668, Fran(cis) Laker and Vin(cent) Crisp in 1671, Samuel Pourtus and Edward Smyth in 1688, Wm Neve and Chr(istopher) Hobson in 1697, Rich(ard) Chatterton and Wm Hollingworth in 1703, Wm Chatterton and Wm Moor in 1706. Others are not easily legible.